Bonn Agreement Wikipedia

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The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species, also known as the Migratory Species Convention (MSC) or Bonn Convention, is an international convention to preserve migratory species in their migration areas. The agreement was signed under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme and deals with global wildlife and habitat conservation. [1] According to Miriam Safi of the Kabul-based Centre for Conflict and Peace Studies, the aim of the conference was to ensure donor support for Afghanistan beyond 2014. [6] Afghanistan originally intended to serve as a showcase for diplomatic reconciliation efforts between the Afghans and the Taliban, but negotiations failed before the conference and no Taliban delegates were present. [7] Pakistan`s withdrawal from the conference also hampered the debate on the Taliban issue, with Pakistan`s support seen as crucial to any agreement between Afghanistan and the Taliban. [8] After the fall of the Taliban in 2001, the Bonn Agreement laid the groundwork for state reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan, supported by the United States and NATO. The agreement aimed to create a new constitution, an independent judiciary, free and fair elections, a centralized sector of security and the protection of the rights of women, including minorities, such as religious and ethnic groups. This model of state-building in Afghanistan was based on a “maximumist model of post-conflict reconstruction” that emerged in the 1990s as a result of international interventions in the Balkans, sub-Saharan Africa and East Timor. [4] The Bonn Agreement is a European environmental agreement. The Bonn Agreement (officially the agreement on interim arrangements in Afghanistan until permanent government institutions were restored) was the first set of agreements adopted on 5 December 2001 to restore the State of Afghanistan after the US invasion of Afghanistan in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. In the absence of a national government since 1979 in Afghanistan, it was deemed necessary to have a transition period before a permanent government was established. A nationally agreed government would require the convening of at least one jirga de loya; However, in the absence of law and order following the rapid victory of the armed forces of the North American and Afghan alliance, immediate action was taken to prove necessary. The CMS acts as a framework convention and encourages its states parties to conclude global or regional agreements.

Article V of the convention defines what should be contained in the agreements concluded under its aegis. These agreements are generally legally binding treaties aimed at “returning or maintaining a favourable state of conservation for the migratory species concerned.” So far, seven agreements have been signed and they follow:[4][5] The agreement was revised in 1983 to involve the European Union and in 2001 to allow Ireland to join. Examples of federal institutions transferred to Bonn (total: 22): cop tasks are listed in Article VII of the agreement.

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