The Paris peace accords effectively distanced the United States from the Vietnam conflict. However, the provisions of the agreement were regularly flouted by both the North Vietnamese government and the South Vietnamese government, which did not elicit a reaction from the United States and eventually led the Communists to expand the territory they controlled until the end of 1973. North Vietnamese forces gradually built their military infrastructure in the areas they controlled and, two years later, were able to launch a successful offensive that ended the status of an independent country in South Vietnam. Fighting began almost immediately after the signing of the agreement, due to a series of reciprocal reprisals, and the war resumed in March 1973.  Nixon then told South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu that he had to make peace, whether he agreed or disagreed, and was therefore obliged to sign. Both sides agreed to the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Laos and Cambodia and the banning of bases and troop movements by these countries. It was agreed that the DMZ would remain a provisional demarcation line on the 17th parallel, with possible reunification of the country “by peaceful means”. An international monitoring commission of Canadians, Hungarians, Poles and Indonesians would be set up, with 1,160 inspectors overseeing the agreement. Under the agreement, South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu will remain in office until the elections.
The North Vietnamese accepted the “right of the South Vietnamese people to self-determination” and stated that they did not inspire military movement throughout the DMZ and that there would be no use of force for the country`s reassurance. Those who thought the ad was true had a lot of reactions. Coffee said that “some men exchanged a wink, a smile or a slight blow on their shoulders, but most of the heads that rested towards themselves, were already projecting themselves 12,000 miles away and watching the joyful and ghostly prospect of reunion with loved ones.” Sam Johnson, a prisoner of war, remembers that his group in Hoa Lo “was fighting, kissing, crying and crying with joy.” At Hanoi`s other detention centre, Plantation, Al Stafford felt “a kind of emptiness that slowly turned into deep, bottomless fatigue.” He went on to explain that he had never felt so tired and empty in his life, expressed in a deep desire to return to his cell and sleep.